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Diffusion Dialysis (DD)

Acid recovery
Similar to Selective Electrodialysis, diffusion dialysis utilizes a cation-exchange and anion-exchange membrane stack; however, it does not require electrical power. As fresh water passes on one side of an anionic membrane and a metal salt on the other, the concentration gradient across the membrane supplies the driving force for the acid to diffuse across the membrane, leaving the metal behind. The process is easy to maintain and consumes little energy.

Among DD's advantages are:

  • Very low operating costs
  • High recovery rates when high concentrate is involved (such as in acid recovery in metal plating plants)
  • Easy to operate



Activated Carbon (AC)

VOC, taste and odor removal
Activated Carbon is an extremely versatile technology, long used to treat water. Activated carbon operates through adsorption. Its high surface area to volume ratio permits accumulation of a large number of contaminant molecules.

Among AC's advantages are:

  • Highly economical treatment option
    • Spent activated carbon is regenerated and re-used


  •  Removes a wide variety of toxic organic compounds to non-detectable levels (99.99%) including:
    • VOCs
    • Taste and odor compounds
    • Residual contaminants



Ion exchange (IX)

Removes metal ions, reduces total solids
Ion exchange is an effective and versatile treatment that removes target ions from water via a bed of ion exchange material, exchanging them for harmless ions. Depending on the exchange material and regenerant used, a variety of specifically targeted ions can be removed from water. Choosing the right ion for exchange depends on the contaminant's ion charge and water quality. Cation exchangers have positively charged ions available for exchange, and anion exchangers have negatively charged ions available for exchange. Resins can be roughly classified as strong or weak acid cation exchangers or strong or weak base anion exchangers. Resin type also determines the regeneration process. Ion exchangers are widely used for water softening, removing hard metal ions (calcium and magnesium) and traces of iron and manganese, and for water demineralization, reducing the total solids content.

Among IX's advantages:

  • Low operating costs
  • Low energy consumption
  • Specific process can remove unwanted ions while retaining desired ions